Saturday, 18 May 2019
(Continued from yesterday)
The orders mentioning the rights and responsibilities of the government officers and other ranks as well as their right to own land were found in the records. In those days, the government servants were grouped to form societies and/or associations. The organizational structure of the military was also found in ancient records.
The organizational structure of the cavalries, elephant troops and shield units as ‘well’ as the size, shape and length and breadth of the guns, shield and spears etc were also mentioned in that book. For example, the shields were 27 inches long and 18 inches wide with the leather cover having the arch shape. And the soldiers must have the tattoos inscribed.
Concerning the taxation, there were different types of tax depending upon the different nature of services, sales, income, and trading such as land revenue, water charges, taxed for sale of gold and silver etc inter alia.
The decisions of the judges and the management and administration of the high-ranking officials inclusive of the kings and the princess were mentioned in Zambudipa O-hsaung book. All the orders were found to be bearing the logo of lion, and the orders were sometimes called the directive or the directions. The book mentioned the following terms: the names of the townships and villages; the administrative terms; the departmental terms; the situations of the administrative jurisdictions; the organizational structure of the military and the terms related to their responsibilities; the terms concerning the positions and the names of rank of the government servants both at the central and the local regions; the regional administration terms; the types of taxes concerning the revenue; the terminology for the types of land and the work on land; the terms concerning the administrative territory; and the terms in relation to the general administration department.

The king ordered a minister, who ruled Kaizar village, to write a book on law, which became known as Manussara Shwe Myin or Maharaja Dhammasat. This book included the traditional succession law systematically for the courts of Myanmar to refer to.
In July 1646 AD, his brother Minye Kyaw Swa demised, and the son of Minye Kyaw Swa called Ahmyint Minn Shin Taloke was abetted by the crooked to launch attacks on the palace so that he could come to power. Swayed by the words of the abetters, Shin Taloke mobilized men and arms, and he entered the royal palace in September of 1647 AD, firing, beating the drum calling for fighting. Rajayodha looked out and realized what was taking place and said, “It is nobody but Ahmyint ruler. As he is a prince, he must have fire arms and guns with him. We’d better go to the western gate to organize men at the four storeyed monastery”. The secretary called Nanda Zeya also suggested fast movement. Next, Nandayodha and Rajayodha went out from the western gate, followed by other sons_Thakhin Pu Phyu and Thakhin Kuthadoe at first. Later, the other sons_Pintale Mingyi and Taita Mingyi_ar-rived accompanied with the king’s nephew called Sipoktaya Mingyi. Aware of the affair, other ministers also arrived at the scene of incident. The royal army led by Banya Gyantaw fought bravely. However, only after one month of fighting, Shin Taloke and his chief died in the fightings.
Nandayodha, the commissioner, passed away and thus, Nanda Meik and Thiri Zeya Kyaw Htin were appointed officers. On 15th October, the royal troops entered the royal palace. Since then, the princes were no longer appointed as the jailers. In May of the next year, a pilgrimage to Kaung Hmudaw alias Rajamanicula Pagoda in Sagaing was conducted. In August, Ava king Maha Dhammaraja passed away and was succeeded by his elder son Minye Yantameik, the king of Pintale. He outmaneuvered his brother in management of the country and thus known as king Thalun (=exceeding) despite his official title being Thiri Thudhammaraja Mahadipati.
The leadership skills of Thiri Thudhammaraja Maha Dipati can be summarized as follows:

1. Thiri Thudhammaraja alias king Thalun can be regarded as a wrise leader. Since his princehood, he was possessed with mindfulness and diligence. And this mindfulness had told him to leave behind an intelligence on horseback before marching to Kyaing Yone. As this intelligence person had informed him of the intention of Minye Deikpa, he could have made his brother Minye Kyaw Swa co-operate with him truthfully. To further strengthen his position, he got his daughter married to Minye Nawrahta.
2. Awareness of the strength of Danyawaddy king and Ayuddhaya king had led him to forming an alliance with them. Obviously, this is a proof of "good leader".
3. Thadoe Dhammaraja separated a column from Pinya cantonment area to be sent to Pakhangyi, and this column was made to control Bant Kyi Saitaik. Additionally, the families of the senior officials in Kyawsi Tatan and within nine districts of ledwin were detained in a lock-up. These actions and activities were excellent according to the military strategy. Thanks to these strategies, Minye Deikpa, Mongthat king, Prince Nyo and Prince Waya Thura could be defeated. This being so, king Thalun is obviously excellent in combat skills.
4. Just as he is quick in awarding honour to both princes and servants, he never hesitates to take severe action against the rebels. In the case of the rebellion by his brother Minye Kyaw Swa, he ordered execution of the ministers who were consulted for this rebellion. In the case of rebellion by Minye Okzana, both Minye Okzana, both Minye Okzana and and the conspiring ministers numbering 11 were all executed. In another case, Prince Nyo, Prince Wara Thura and Mongthat chief were all executed for rebellion against him. Taking of severe action against those who launch rebellion and giving of reward to those who deserve honour is the good skills of a leader.
5. Foreign trade and keeping diplomatic ties with foreign nations are good signs of leadership.
6. His preference for the affair of the state over waging war is a sign of good leadership. Aware of the importance of Kyaukse region, king Thalun has exerted all-out effort for making Kyaukse region green and clean, building dams and irrigation networks for cultivation. He can, therefore, be regarded as a good leader, who has effectuated national peace and prosperity.
7. Additionally, surveys were conducted and effort was exerted for boosting agricultural production. And he has ordered writing of a law for the administrators to systematically manage the affair of the state and to pass fair judgment according to the law. He can, therefore, be regarded as a good leader possessed with the kingly practices.

1. The Glass Palace Chronicle
2. Europe and Burma
3. Zambudipa U-hsaung
4. Anglo-Myanmar Relations (Maung Maung Thaik)
5. Myanmar History (Dr Kyaw Thet)

Translated by
Sun Thit Aung (KMA)